NEMACOLIN TRAIL, NATIONAL ROAD, B&O RAILROAD AND THE C&O CANAL

Cumberland’s foundation and history are tied to its geographic importance as a key east-west route linking coastal eastern America with the Ohio and Mississippi watersheds. The evolution of transportation via roads, canals, and trains in America and the role this played in encouraging westward colonization is a primary theme of the Allegany Museum.

The museum’s new exhibition space will highlight the evolution of transportation from about 1750 to 1900. Space will include scale models of canal boats and trains, a fully restored 1825 Conestoga wagon, and a 1902 Oldsmobile—a transitional vehicle between carriages and cars. This collection is complemented by the extensive Thrasher Carriage collection.

QUEEN CITY STATION: The museum has a replica of the "Queen City" hotel, Cumberland's nickname, constructed in 1871 by the B&O Railroad as a train station and hotel. This luxurious facility had 174 rooms, formal gardens, a ballroom, and a 400-seat dining room. As train traffic waned after World War II, the hotel fell into disrepair and was torn down in 1972.

FIRE HOSE CART: This wheeled cart to transport fire hoses dates to the early 1900s.

HAND PUMP: Hand pumps such as this one were built in from the late 1700s to the early 1800s and were important tools of early fire fighters.

EARLY RUBBER TIRE: This wood and rubber tire still reminiscent of a wagon wheel was manufactured by the Kelly-Springfield Tire Company around 1900.

CANAL BOAT: A replica of a typical transport boat that traveled the C&O canal. The canal was abandoned by the close of the Depression.

STEAM ENGINE: A model of a steam engine that would have traveled the B&O railroad linking Cumberland with Washington, DC.

NATIONAL ROAD MILE MARKER: Stone mile markers were used on the National Road until around 1835.

Interpretive text, graphics, and models will explain:

  trade routes such as the Nemacolin Trail, an ancient Native American trail that connected the Potomac River and the Ohio and Monongahela River watersheds and linked native cultures before European contact.

  events of the French and Indian War, particularly the need to transport thousands of men as well as wagons and artillery to the Ohio territory, spurring British investment in improving the Nemacolin Trail and the creation of the first road to cross successive ridgelines of the Appalachian Mountains.

  the importance of the Cumberland Road or National Road, authorized in 1806 by President Thomas Jefferson, as the first highway built by the Federal Government to spur westward colonization.

  the role of the B&O railroad and the C&O Canal, which reached Cumberland in 1842 1850, respectively, in transporting regional resources, especially timber and coal, and fueling America’s industrialization.